A Reflective Teaching Road Map for Pre-service and Novice Early Childhood Educators
Suzanne Thomas, Dona S. Packer
Teaching requires skillful and continual analysis of student performance. The need for self-questioning and self-analysis is heightened as historically used teaching practices may hold only limited effectiveness in today's currently diverse classrooms. A reflective teacher looks beyond day-to-day practices and commonly held beliefs to investigate teaching practices and assign meaning to student performance. Reflectivity centers on the responsibility of the teacher for the student's response to instruction and enables the teacher to make effective instructional decisions. Reflective analysis enables teachers to make appropriate instructional decisions; however, the skills to make such analysis may take instruction and experience, and, therefore elude many pre-service and novice teachers. In this article, we present guidelines and strategies to facilitate reflective behaviors appropriate for pre-service and novice teachers. Suggested guidelines are based on the mnemonic "CAR" (Context, Attention, Response). Guiding questions, known as "CAR-keys" were developed to provide a specific model for instructional decision making.
Reflection , teacher preparation , instructional decision making
Allen, K. E., & Cowdery, G. E. (2009). The exceptional child: Inclusion in early childhood education (6 th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.
Bruder, M. B., (2010). Early childhood intervention: A promise to children and families for their future. Exceptional Children, 76(3), 339-355.
Brookfield. S. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: JosseyBass.
Cremin, H., Thomas, G., & Vincett, K. (2003). Learning zones: An evaluation of three models for improving learning through teacher/teaching assistant teamwork. Support for Learning, 18(4), 154-161, Davis, E. A. (2006). Characterizing productive reflection among preservice elementary teachers: Seeing what matters. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 281-301.
Dempsey, M., Halton, C., & Murphy, M. (2001). Reflective learning in social work education: Scaffolding the process. Social Work Education, 20, 631-641.
Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A statement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educational process. Boston: D.C. Heath & Company.
Ference, R., Clement, M. C., Smith, C. K. (2008-2009). Growing your own: Keys to successful first-year teaching. SRATE Journal, 18, 53-58.
Freese, A. R. (2006). Reframing one’s teaching: Discovering our teacher selves through reflection and inquiry. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 100-119.
Halquist, D., & Novinger, S. (2009). Cracks in the mirror: Discovering teacher candidates' strategies for resisting reflection. In C. Craig and J. Deretchin (Eds.), Teacher learning in small-group settings: Teacher education yearbook XVII. (pp. 200-225). Lanhan, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education in partnership with the Association of Teacher Educators.
Işikoğlu, N. (2007). The role of reflective journals in early childhood pre-service teachers’ professional development. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 7, 819-825.
Johnson, G. (2001). Teacher reflection narratives: A poststructural approach. Journal of Education for Teaching, 27, 199-200.
Lin, M. & Bates, A. B., (2010). Home visits: How do they affect teachers’ beliefs about teaching and diversity? Early Childhood Education Journal, 38, 179-185. Doi: 1007/x10643-010-0393-1.
Meier, D. R., & Stremmel, A. J. (2010). Reflection through narrative: The power of narrative inquiry in early childhood teacher education. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 31, 249-257.
Nolan, A. (2008). Encouraging the reflection process in undergraduate teachers using guided reflection. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33, 31-36.
Nolan. A., & Sim J. (2011). Exploring and evaluating levels of reflection in pre-service early childhood teachers. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 36, 22-30.
O’Keefe, J., & Tait, K. (2004). An examination of the UK early years foundation degree and the evolution of senior practitioners-enhancing work-based practice by engaging in reflective and critical thinking. International Journal of Early Years Education, 12(1), 25-41.
Ryan, K., Cooper, J. M., & Tauer, S. (2008). Teaching for student learning: Becoming a master teacher. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Schiller, P., & Willis, C.A. (2008, July). Using brain-based teaching strategies to create supportive early childhood environments that address learning standards. Young Children, Retrieved July 30, 2011, from http://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200807/BTJPrimaryInterest.pdf
Schon, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.
Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Souto-Manning, M., & Dice, J. L. (2007). Reflective teaching in the early years: A case for mentoring diverse educators. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34, 4254
Sprick, R., Booher, M., & Garrison, M. (2009). Behavioral response to intervention: Creating a continuum of problem solving and support. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.
Sumsion, J., & Fleet, A. (1996). Reflection: Can we assess it? Should we assess it? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 21(2), 121-131.
Thomas, S. B., & Dykes, F. (2011). Promoting successful transitions: What can we learn from RTI to enhance outcomes for all students? Preventing School Failure, 55, 1Thomas, S. B., Stanley, M., & Hayes, A. (2010). Put on a happy face: Molly’s story. National Teacher Education Journal, 3, 65-72. vanManen, M. (1977). Linking ways of knowing with ways of being practical. Curriculum Inquiry, 6, 205-228.
Valli, L. (1997). Listening to other voices: A description of teacher reflection in the United States. Peabody Journal of Education, 72, 67-88.
Walker, D., Carth, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., & Buzhardt, J. F. (2008). The use of individual growth and developmental indicators for progress monitoring and intervention decision making in early education. Exceptionality, 16, 33-47.
Walker, H.M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M (2004). Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence based practices (2 nd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Winter, S. M. (2007). Inclusive early childhood education: A collaborative approach. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson.
Wood, E., & Bennett, N. (2000). Changing theories, changing practice: Exploring early childhood teachers’ professional learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 635-6
Yuen-Ling, L. (2008). Teachers in action research: Assumptions and potentials. Educational Action Research, 16(2), 251-260.
Zaman, A., (2008). Gender sensitive teaching: A reflective approach for early childhood education teacher training programs. Education, 129, 110-118.