An Exploration of Service Delivery in Early Intervention over the Last Two Decades
Tracey K. Hoffman
Throughout much of the 1990’s in the United States, early intervention services were often provided through a center-based therapeutic or medical model. However, today we recognize the natural environment is typically the most developmentally appropriate setting for all children to learn. Therefore, programs now aim to serve children in their homes, child care settings or places they spend the majority of their days. This investigation will examine current studies and literature pertaining to early intervention service delivery, and compare the findings to similar studies conducted over the last two decades. By getting a clearer perspective on how service delivery has changed and evolved over the years, we can work toward meeting each family’s unique needs.
Early childhood education , low-income , brain science , neurology
- Able-Boone, H. (1996). Ethics and early intervention: Toward more relationship-focused interventions. Infants and Young Children, 9(2), 13-21.
- Aron, L. Y., Loprest, P. J., & Steuerle, C. E. (1996). Serving children with disabilities: A systematic look at the programs. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.
- Barnett, W. S., & Escobar, C. M. (1989). Understanding program costs. In C. Tingey (Ed.), Implementing early intervention (pp. 49-63). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
- Bricker, D., & Kaminski, R. (1986). Intervention programs for severely handicapped infants and children. In B. L. Bickman, & D. L. Weatherford (Eds.), Evaluating early intervention programs for severely handicapped children and their families (pp. 51-79). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
- Bruder, M. B. & Dunst, C. J. (1999). Expanding learning opportunities for infants and toddlers in natural environments: A chance to reconceptualize early intervention. Zero to Three, (20)3, 34-36.
- Campbell, P. H. (2004). Participation-based services: Promoting children’s participation in natural settings. Young Exceptional Children, 8(1), 20-29.
- Dawson, G. & Osterling, J. (1997). Early intervention in autism. In M. J. Guralnick (Ed.), The effectiveness of early intervention (pp. 307-326). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.
- Dunst, C. J. (2007). Early intervention for infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities. In S. L. Odom, R. H. Homer, M. Snell, & J. Blacher (Eds.), Handbook of developmental disabilities (pp. 161-180). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Dunst, C. J. (2001). Participation of young children with disabilities in community learning activities. In M. J. Guralnick (Ed.), Early childhood inclusion: Focus on change (pp. 307-333). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
- Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. (2008). Research synthesis and meta-analysis of studies of family-centered practices. Asheville, NC: Winterberry Press.
- Epley, P., Summers, J. A., & Turnbull, A. (2010). Characteristics and trends in family centered conceptualizations. Journal of Family Social Work, 13. 269-285.
- Filer, J. D., & Mahoney, G. J. (1996). Collaboration between families and early intervention service providers. Infants and Young Children, 9(2), 22-30.
- Guralnick, M. J. (1998). Effectiveness of early intervention for vulnerable children: A developmental perspective. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102(4), 319-345.
- Harjusola-Webb, S., Gatmaitan, M., & Lyons, A. (2013). Empowering families: The early intervention in natural environments professional development community project in Ohio. Social Welfare Interdisciplinary Approach, 3(1), 42-56.
- Innocenti, M. S., & White, K. R. (1993). Are more intensive early intervention programs more effective? Exceptionality, 4(1), 31-50.
- Kelly, J. E., Zuckerman, T., & Rosenblatt, S. (2008). Promoting first relationships: A relationship-focused early intervention approach. Infants and Young Children, 21(4), 285-295.
- McBride, S. L., Brotherson, M.J., Joanning, H., Whiddon, D., & Demmitt, A. (1993). Implementation of family-centered services: Perceptions of families and professionals. Journal of Early Intervention, 17(4), 414-430.
- McEwen, I. R., & Sheldon, M. I. (1995). Pediatric therapy in the 1990s: The demise of the educational versus medical dichotomy. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 15(2), 33-45.
- McWilliam, R. A. (1996). Service delivery issues in early intervention. In R. A. McWilliam (Ed.), Rethinking pull-out services in early intervention: A professional resource (pp. 3-27). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
- McWilliam, R. A. (2012). Implementing and preparing for home visits. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 31(4), 224-231.
- McWilliam, R. A. (2015). Future of early intervention with infants and toddlers for whom typical experiences are not effective. Remedial and Special Education, 36(1), 33-38.
- Ozonoff, S., & Cathcart, K. (1998). Effectiveness of a home program intervention for young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(1), 25-32.
- Rickards, A. L., Walstab, I., Wright-Rossi, R. A., Simpson, J., & Reddihough, D. S. (2009).
- One-year follow-up of the outcome of a randomized controlled trial of a home-based intervention program for children with autism and developmental delay and their families. Child: Care Health and Development, 35, 593-602.
- Roberts, J., Williams, K., Carter, M., Evans, D., Parmenter, T., Silove, N., Clark, T., & Warren, A. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of two early intervention programs for young children with autism: Centre-based with parent program and home-based. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 1553-1566.
- Rush, D. D., & Sheldon, M. L. (2011). The early childhood coaching handbook. Baltimore, MD. Paul. H. Brookes.
- Santelli, B., Turnbull, A., Sergeant, J., Lerner, E. P., & Marquis, J. G. (1996). Parent to parent programs: Parent preferences for supports. Infants and Young Children, 9(1), 53-62.
- Sheldon, M. L., & Rush, D. D. (2001). The ten myths about providing services in natural environments. Infants and Young Children, 14(1), 1-13.
- Solomon, R., Van Egeren, L. A., Mahoney, G., Quon Huber, M. S., & Zimmerman, P. (2014).
- PLAY project home consultation intervention program for young children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 35, 475–485.
- Sontag, J. C., & Schacht, R. (1993). Family diversity and patterns of service utilization in early intervention. Journal of Early Intervention, 17(4), 431-444.
- Stokes, T. F. & Baer, D. L. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349-367.
- Torrey, M. K., Leginus, M. A., & Cecere, S. (2011). Resource-based intervention: Success with community-centered practices. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 31(2), 115-119.
- Vismara, L. A., Colombi, C. & Rogers, S. J. (2009). Can one hour per week of therapy lead to lasting changes in children with autism? Autism, 13, 93-115.
- Weston, D. R., Ivins, B., Heffron, M. C., & Sweet, N. (1997). Formulating the centrality of relationships in early intervention: An organizational perspective. Infants and Young Children, 9(3), 1-12.
- White, K. R., & Casto, G. (1989). What is known about early intervention. In C. Tingey (Ed.), Implementing early intervention (pp. 3-21). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.